Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com. Max Weber was born in Germany in 1964 to a Protestant family. When discussing the origin of religion, it's important to remember the term 'religion' is broad and far... Max Muller. Secular-based theories of religion: . In early phases of religion we find stones, trees and such objects given extreme reverence and worshipped. His research was halted by a period of serious depression, however, most of his prominent work was carried out after his breakdown, such as “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism” (Calhoun, et al., 2007, p206). Democracy and Religion: Modern Theories Essay. Weber’s most prominent work, “The Protestant ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism”, discussed the interaction between religion and economic aspects. Marx’s views are much more optimistic than Weber’s idealistic pessimistic views. The usual and unintelligible events of nature tend man towards theological or fictitious interpretation of these events. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! Durkheim's theory of religion exemplifies how functionalists examine sociological phenomena. Marx’s theory states that religion was created to help control the non-superior class. Thus dreams convinced the primitive man of the existence of spirits and this conviction became, according to Tylor, the basis of religious beliefs. The last and most developed form of theological thinking is seen manifested in monotheism. Such factors include race, ethnicity, social class, or neighborhoods. These three theories on human development each have their own good points and frauds. Religion comes in as a substitute to fill up the vacuum created by displacement of the father. VAT Registration No: 842417633. Weber was particularly interested in the cultural and non-economic sources related to social action. According to the father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, the origin of religion can be traced back to the problem of child seeking to work out adequate relationships with his parents, particularly his father. Learn. In his writings, Emile Durkheim provides a sociological interpretation of religion. Created by. He believed that the new individualist forms of religion were simply another form of collectivist forms in society (Durkheim, 1976, p425). Fundamentally, the task of religion is preserving a normal, positive life (Durkheim, 1976, p29). This paper is aimed at discussing the views of this sociologist. According to Spencer the ghosts of ancestors were transformed into gods. In monotheism it is believed that one God is Supreme and that he is responsible for the maintenance of order and system in the world. Specifically the psychological built of it. Durkheim wrote extensively in the area of religion. But as R.R. 4. Religion Sociology Essay 1191 Words | 5 Pages. It is not there to enhance our knowledge, instead it is there in order to provide a guide for the way we act and live (Durkheim, 1976, p416). Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? Wetherefore currently lack a decisive criterion that would enable clearrulings whether some movements should count as religions (e.g.,Scientology or Cargo cults of the Pacific islands). These are: (i) Fetishism, (ii) Polytheism and (iii) Monotheism. About Essay Sauce. He identified the functions of religion in society. It allows people to rise out of themselves, which then helps mould their action and behaviour, which results in the collective cohesive affect on society. At some point in history, sons rebelled against the father, killed him and distributed the females among themselves. He believed that religion played a role of stereotyping within society, as it structures and preserves social groups and relationship and provides a social identity for groups. If people share a religion, the shared beliefs values and symbols, they are united by these, therefore it religion as a cohesive among these people. This fact was seen confirmed by dreams in which man saw somebody talking to him, who had died recently. The primary intention of religion is to influence the moral of life (Durkheim, 1976, p420). It includes such facts as celebration, despair, ethical vigour, mystery, retreat, social activism, monastic quietude, contemplation, animal sacrifice, rituals involving pain and terror, images of hope, symbols of fear, the affirmation of life and struggle against death, creative growth, unthinking superstitions, beliefs and dogmas about natural and supernatural etc. Ordinarily, it is believed that evolution of religion takes the form of a steady decline in number of gods that is a movement from polytheism to monotheism. Despite being a trained as a lawyer and historian, he became interested in the social sciences, in particular economics. But he also admits that religion has profound emotional basis. As the very term monotheism implies, at this level of human thinking a belief in one God had replaced the earlier belief in many gods. He claimed that religion does not conflict with science. This is the descriptive approach towards religion and this is precisely the approach being followed by modern psychologists of religion. As the magician believes that nature can be overwhelmed and instrumentalized for personal benefit through magical spells, in the very same manner, religious man believes in the existence of spirits that must be pleased and cajoled by prayers, rather than overwhelmed by magic formulas, though religionist, like magician, seeks to understand the mechanism of nature and control it. He maintained that religion interacted with other social and cultural aspects (Harrington, 2005, p67). According to Sir James Frazer, religion developed out of an original magical stage of human culture. What is Auguste Comte’s ‘Law of Three Stages’? We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. “The Elementary Forms of Religious Life” examines how the social origins and function of religion and beliefs associated with it, and how they are reinforced by rituals and ceremonies (Calhoun, 2007, p136). The phenomenon called religion is extremely variegated, complex, intricate and full of paradoxes. This indicates that religion suggests the ideals of society, instead of explaining it (Durkheim, 1976, p420). This patriarchal society theory is stoutly opposed by those who consider that the original society was matriarchal and that is why mother-worship is so central to every religion. In the early years of present century, the sociologist, the anthropologist and the psychologist greatly widened his horizons and laid the net of his investigation rather wide. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Religion can be recognised in every culture around the world. 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